Diabetes mellitus is commonly referred to as diabetes and is probably the most prevalent diseases the world over. The number of people afflicted by it is growing by the day due to our faulty diet and limited physical exercise.
Diabetes Symptoms and Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is characterized by high sugar level in the body. Human body has a built-in mechanism to maintain the glucose level. However, under certain circumstances, this mechanism suffers a snag, resulting in high blood glucose level. If left to develop unabated, devastating effects accrue. Diabetes is an ailment which is the root cause of many others and it is important to keep a blood glucose level check to continue an all-round healthy life.
Pancreas produce a hormone called insulin which is responsible for regulating the glucose level. The outcome of any imbalance exhibits itself in the form of diabetes. There are mainly two types of diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
1. Type 1 diabetes - This occurs when the body is not able to produce enough insulin to counter the rise in blood sugar level and the patient has to be given external supplements. It is also called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes. Type 1diabetes afflicts majority of the children and has no known preventive measures. Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop rapidly.
2. Type 2 diabetes - Diabetics with this category are unable to use the natural insulin secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas and is termed adult-onset diabetes. The defective responsiveness of the body to insulin results in type 2 diabetes that is far more common. Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop very gradually, are subtle or completely absent.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of Diabetes
Other significant forms include congenital and gestational diabetes. Signs and symptoms of diabetes depend upon the type and stage of the disease. The high sugar level mainly causes:
1. Polyuria - Frequent urination
2. Polydipsia - Increased thirst
3. Polyphagia - Increased appetite
Other than theses signs and symptoms of diabetes skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, problems with vision can also manifest themselves. Wounds and other diseases begin to take longer to heal. Diagnosis consists of blood glucose level check either through clinical blood and urine test or a self-test using an electronic instrument. The right method of diagnosing diabetes mellitus is to take the reading of fasting glucose level and that of after a meal. Fasting glucose level is considered normal if is less than or equal to 126 and that of after eating to be not more than 140.
Sugary foodstuffs are best avoided. Besides sugar, natural fructose and high calorie or carbohydrate diet must be kept off. As it is a chronic disease, managing it through self control is the only sure way to keep diabetes under control. Oral medication and insulin injections are widely used, as well as timed pumps embedded into the body. Avoid obesity, high blood pressure and cholesterol. It is best to educate the patient regarding the hazards of high blood glucose level, methods to prevent it and wean them towards improved exercise regime and diet. Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can be kept under check with a daily dose of insulin while signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes change with age and require alteration in medication.
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